SEMICONDUCTOR APPLICATIONS
  Cobalt and Nickel Targets for Advanced Contact Applications

Introduction

As device scaling continues to decrease, the use of Ti as a salicide material becomes increasingly more difficult. Engineers are now actively pursuing replacement materials and the primary choices are cobalt and nickel. Both of these materials produce silicide contacts with lower resistivity than TiSi2. They both offer advantages over Ti in the control of the formation of very thin contacts.

The thickness of Co and Ni sputtering targets for use with DC magnetron deposition is limited due to the high magnetic permeability of the two metals. From Praxair MRC’s experience with magnetic alloys used in the data storage industry, Praxair MRC’s proprietary CCH process has been applied to cobalt and nickel targets to reduce permeability and increase magnetic leakage flux(MLF). Figure 1 illustrates the permeability reduction in cobalt target materials.

click for larger image
Figure 1. Praxair MRC’s process technology reduces the permeability of cobalt target material.

This established proprietary process enables Praxair MRC to manufacture sputtering targets in Co and Ni to 3 mm thick for an extended life and improved cost of ownership. Cobalt and nickel targets are examples of Praxair MRC's WorldProduct technology, developed and produced at its global manufacturing facilities. Overall purity level of 99.99% and higher is available.

Summary

Low permeability, high magnetic leakage flux cobalt and nickel targets are ideally suited for processes required in today's state-of-the-art semiconductor devices using PVD systems such as Applied Materials Endura Novellus Inova, M2I/MB2/M200O, TELs ECLIPSE® , Trikon Sigma, CVC Connexion, Ulvac Cereaus and Anelva systems employing advanced cathodes.

Endura is a trademark of Applied Materials Inc.
Inova, M2i, MB', M2000, Quantum, and Mini-Quantum are trademarks of Novellus Systems, Inc.
Eclipse is a trademark of Tokyo Electron, Ltd.
Sigma is a trademark of Trikon Technology, Inc.
Cereaus is a trademark of Ulvac, Ltd.
Connexion is a trademark of CVC, Inc.

   
 

CCH Process
CCH Do Aluminum Alloys
CCH Do and Do* Ti
Co and Ni
Ta and Cu

Thin Films Application Lab
Bonding Technology
Novellus Inova™ Tool
Endura™ & Centura™ Systems
RE-Al PLUS": Sputter Targets
Technical Papers  
  1. Reduction of TiN Nodule Density Through Optimization of Cathode and Process Variables
  2. Effect of Oxygen Content on Particle Generation in TiN Reactive Sputtering
  3. Link From Titanium Target Orientation to Titanium/Titanium Nitride/Aluminum Thin Film Orientations
  4. Technical Papers Available in PDF